Basic Principles of Animation

Ollie Johnston and Frank Thomas of Walt Disney Studios first introduced “The 12 Basic Principles of Animation” in their 1981 book The Illusion of Life: Disney Animation

The 12 Basic Principles of Animation are:

1. Squash and Stretch – the most important principle, “squash and stretch” gives a sense of weight and volume to drawn objects. It is best described as a bouncing ball, which appears stretched when falling and squashed when it hits the ground.

Source: YouTube

2. Anticipation – is the first part of making an action while animating, communicates what is going to happen. Anticipation can be called the preparation for action.

Source: YouTube

3. Staging – Poses and actions, arrangement of cameras, background, and stage elements shall demonstrate the character’s temper, reaction, character’s attitude to a story, and continuity of the plotline.aging – Poses and actions, arrangement of cameras, background, and stage elements shall demonstrate the character’s temper, reaction, character’s attitude to a story, and continuity of the plotline.

Source: YouTube

4. Straight-Ahead Action and Pose-to-Pose – the animator draws one frame, then the next, and so on until the scene is complete. 

Source: YouTube

5. Follow-Through and Overlapping Action – Overlapping action implies that not everything happens at the same time.

Source: YouTube

6. Slow In and Slow OutSlow-in and Slowout are techniques for altering the speed of object movements.

Source: YouTube

7. Arcs – Everything in nature will tend to move in arcs. Arcs give animation a more natural action and better flow. The Disney dudes decided that everything looks better if it all moves according to arcs, so be warned! Straight linear movement is a no-no!

Source: YouTube

8. Secondary Action – The second group consists of performances or actions that are secondary to the main idea of the shot.

Source: YouTube

9. Timing – Timing refers to the number of frames used to create an action or part of an action.

Source: YouTube

10. ExaggerationExaggeration is used in animation for visual effect.

Source: YouTube

11. Solid Drawing – is the ability to draw a character with consideration of the 3-dimensional reality – weight, volume, balance, anatomy, light, gradient, shadows.

Source: YouTube

12. Appeal – Giving a character a dynamic design can greatly boost its appeal.

Source: YouTube

These principles establish the foundation of all animation work and are appropriate for several contrasting fields.

Srilalitha

www.p66.me

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