10 Basic Principles of  Animation

About the Principles of Animation

These concepts were first developed by creators Ollie Johnston and Frank Thomas in 1981. They have written a book called “The book of Illusion of Life” was this book examines the work of animators in 1930 with the approach of Johnston and Thomas approaches 10 fundamental concepts of animation.

Squash and Stretch 

When the soft object hits hard then it provides the weight which impacts the personality that stretches in the opposite direction.


When the major action takes place some anticipatory movements have been added to the realism.


These ideas present focus action where the makers create light through the frame with camera angles.

Straight Ahead and Pose to Pose

These techniques are crafted by creating a few key frames that are filled with the missing ones.

Follows Through and Overlapping Action

When the character has different speeds it loses the section and continues moving after it comes to a halt where it overlaps the action and stops mass in the motion.

Slow-In and Slow-Out

Some moving objects need to speed up or stop by adding extra frames of the characters which finish some action that increases the realistic effect.


These actions move in life where speed increases when it turns into Natural motion that has followed through slight circular motion.

Secondary Actions

In this character, the additional action can reinforce through techniques that add more dimension to the main action.


This helps in creating the illusion where some frames show the action through proper speed by animating the objects where the laws of physics can help to establish the character’s mood and personality.


It is used in animated movements that have a flawless which evokes some exaggeration in the specific form whereas cartoon style has specific ways.




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